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Full text of "Fish and Wildlife Management Report August 1, 1958"



No. 42 



August 1, 195S 



FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 



REPORT 



PROVINCE OF ONTARIO 
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 
Division of Fish and Wildlife 



Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram 
Minister 



F.A. MacDougall 
Deputy Minister 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
NO. 42 AUGUST 1, 1953 



Page 

Deer Season, Lake Huron District, 1957. 

- by R. E. Mason 1 

Deer Season, Kenptville District, 1957. 

- by J. B. Dawson 16 

Notes On the Use of Aircraft For Locating Deer In 
the Lake Erie District. 

- by A. R. Streib and L. J, Stock 28 

Deer Inventory of Elgin County, 195$. 

- by D. Neill et al 36 

Moose Browse Survey, Gogama District, 195#. 

- by J. A. Macfie 39 

Moose Inventory, 1958, Gogama District. 

- by J. A. Macfie 45 

Aerial Moose Inventory, Sault Ste. Marie District, 

1958. - by P. Kwaterowski 55 

Methods and Costs of Collecting Moose Returns, Port 

Arthur District, 1957 Season. - by D. D'Agostini 64 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTaL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



- 1 - 



DEER SEASON, LAKE HURON DISTRICT, 1957 

by 
R. E. Mason 



Introduction 

Four Counties in the Lake Huron District held a four day 
open season for deer during 1957. Bruce, Grey, Huron and Perth were 
open from November 12th to 15th inclusive. Hunting in Huron and 
Perth was restricted to shotguns only, and the use of dogs prohibited, 
During this period officers checked a total of 497 deer. Of this 
number, 197 or 43«$% were adult bucks, 139 or 30.9$ adult does, and 
114 or 25.3$ fawns. 

The weather during the hunt was especially unfavourable 
except for the opening day. Table I shows the daily weather condi- 
tions. 



TABLE NO. I - Weather Conditions 
Date 



Description 



November 12 
November 13 
November 14 
November 15 



Weather clear and sunny. Ground snow-covered 
except for upper Bruce Peninsula and ground soft. 

Overcast with drizzle turning to rain by evening. 
Snow disappeared and ground wet. 

Heavy rain throughout most of the area all day. 
Ground covered with water in low lying areas. 

Overcast conditions with drizzle and high winds. 
Ground still exceedingly wet. 



Although quantitative data were collected in only one 
county, indications are that hunting pressure was greatest on 
November 12th, gradually declining to a low on November 14th, then 
increasing somewhat on November 15th. 



TABLE NO. II - Hunting Pressure By The Day in Bruce County 



x 



Date 



November 12 
November 13 
November 14 
November 15 

Week's Total 



No. Hunters No. Deer Shot Hunter Success {%) 

627 
506 

334 
373 



831 



203 



23 



5€ 



These figures were taken from the Big Game Checking Station Cards 
and represent the cumulative hunting pressure for the week and not 
just the numbers of hunters passing through the checking station 
that day. 



- 2 - 



Deer Checking Station 



The deer checking station was situated at Wiarton and was 
manned from 3s00 p.m. to 7»00 p.m. during each day of the season, and 
from 8s30 a.m. until 12s00 noon on November 16th. The station was 
manned by personnel qualified to age deer by the successful comple- 
tion of the deer aging course sponsored by the Southern Research 
Station. Two hundred and nineteen parties consisting of 628 hunters 
checked through the station with 118 deer. 

The data received at the checking station are tabulated 
separately as personnel collecting data other than that collected 
on the station were not all qualified by the aforementioned course. 

All deer recorded at the checking station were harvested 
on the Bruce Peninsula, in the Townships of St. Edmunds, Lindsay, 
Eastnor, and Albemarle. 



TABLE NO. Ill 


- Temporal 


Distribution of the Deer Kill (copy of 




District 


- Lake Huron, 1957. completed 






Form H.31) 




No. Sportsmen ho. Parties 




Hunting 


Reporting At Percent 




Cumulative 


Checking Deer Percent Of Hunter 


Date 


For 4 Days 


Station Killed Total Kill Success 


1 November 




2 November 






3 November 






Week's Totals 






4 November 






5 November 






6 November 






7 November 






8 November 






9 November 






10 November 






Week's Totals 






11 November 






12 November 


507 


57 


13 November 


410 


28 


14 November 


292 


20 


15 November 


346 


61 


16 November 


— 


53 


17 November 






Week's Totals 


628 


219 118 - 13.9$ 


18 November 






19 November 






20 November 






21 November 






22 November 






23 November 






24 November 






2 5 November 






Week's Totals 







Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemanaug1958onta 



3 - 



TABLE NO. IV - Deer Age-Class Distribution Summary 

District, Lake H uron, 1937. 



(copy of 
completed 
Form H.30) 



Total Deer Checked; 

Adult Bucks 39 

Adult Does 33 

Buck Fawns 10 

Doe Fawns 17 

Unaged & Unsexed 19 



Percentage of Deer Checked; 

Adult Bucks 39.4$ 
Adult Does 33.3$ 
Total Fawns 27.3$ 



Total 99 



100.0$ 



Percentages of Adult Deer in Each Age Class 



Age 



i 

6|) 
71) 
Si) 

10J) 



TOTALS 



Unaged 



GRAND TOTAL 



Bucks 



No. of 
Deer 

IS 

6 

11 

3 



39 



Percent 
of Total 

46.2 

15.4 

28.2 

7.7 



2.5 



100.0 



Does 



No. of 
Deer 

12 

6 

1 
3 



33 



Percent 
of Total 

36.4 

18.2 

24.2 

3.0 

9.1 



9.1 



100.0 



Sexes Combined 

No. of Percent 
Deer of Total 



30 

12 

19 

4 

3 



4 



41.6 
16.6 

26.4 
5.6 
4.2 



5.6 



72 



100.0 



19 



91 



Average age of 
Adult Bucks - 

*2 



Average Age of 
Adult Does - 

^2 



Average Age of 
All Adults - 

^2 



- 4 - 



TABLE 


NO. 


V - 


Lactation of 1 


Does 


Age 






Mi! 


Iking 




Number 


Percent 


4 

1 






2 


6.4 






3 


9.7 






4 


12.9 






- 


- 






1 2 

) 

11 


j 6.4 


TOTAL 


35.5 



Dry 



Number 


Percent 


9 
2 

5 

1 
1 


29.0 
6.4 

16.1 
3.2 
3.2 


j 2 


J 6.4 


20 


64.5 



TABLE NO. VI - Shedding of Milk Teeth in Yearlings 
Shedding 



Bucks 
Does 

TOTAL 



Number Percent 



6 



10.7 
10.7 



Unshed 



Number 

14 
8 


Percent 

50.0 
23.6 


22 





Deer Harvest By Counties 

Because of the varying conditions with regard to seasons 
and habitat it is not practical to consider the harvest statistics 
in larger units than counties. The seasons in Bruce have been for 
the most part regular, but seasons in Huron, Perth and Grey have 
had a sporadic history. The intensity of agriculture similarly 
varies greatly among the counties, thus making varied environmental 
conditions for the deer. 

B ruce County 

Bruce County received the most thorough coverage of the 
four counties due to the checking station operating in this area, 
as well as the field checks by Officers. Information tabulated 
below includes the data received on the checking station and the 
field checks. 

Hunting pressure by the day has been presented in 
Table II. This, of course, was directly related to weather 
conditions. The figure for November 15th, - 373 - represents for 
the most part hunters who were in camps for the full season. Many 
of the hunters did not hunt on November 14th because of the extre- 
mely adverse weather conditions, but most are included in the 
figures for November 12th and 13th. The average party size for 
Bruce County was 3 .2 hunters per party. 



- 5 - 

Table VII gives the sex composition for total deer checked. 
The observed sex ratio for all is 36s 33 dfi;99. This is not 
significantly different from an even ratio - (chi square Z 0.310). 
The sex ratio of adult deer (exclusive of fawns), however, is not 
highly significantly different from an even ratio (chi square s 2.94) > 
but is approaching significance. In an effort to determine whether 
or not this difference in the sex ratio for adult deer should be 
considered as significant, graphs were drawn of the observed sex 
ratio for the last three years, with limits set at the 25% confidence 
level. This graph is depicted in figure I. Although there is a wide 
degree of overlap in statistical range of the sex ratios, the graph 
suggests a yearly preponderance of bucks. This cannot be accounted 
for by hunter selection or by a differential mortality rate. There- 
fore differential vulnerability to hunting must cause more male deer 
to be present in the sample. When lg year old deer are excluded 
from the computation, the sex ratio again approaches an even ratio 
(chi square = .344). Hence the conclusion is drawn that male deer 
in the age class lj are more susceptible to hunting than are other 
deer. Apparently this has been noticed in other deer herds in the 
Province. 

TABLE VII - Total Deer Checked in Bruce County 



Number of Deer 



Percent of Total 



Adult Bucks 71 

Adult Does 52 

Buck Fawns 12 

Doe Fawns 24 

TOTAL 159 

Unaged and Unsexed .......... 44 

U itrli'J 1J lUliiJ-J O0O000O00O0*«0«OO ^UJ 



Adult Bucks 44.7% 

Adult Does 32.7% 

Fawns 22.6% 



100.0% 



table viii - 


Percentage 


as Adult D 


eer By Ag 


;e Class - 


Bruce County. 




All 

No. of 
Deer 

47 
30 
24 

9 

6 

7 

123 

44 


Deer 

Percent 
of Total 

33.2 

24»4 

19.5 

7.3 

4.9 

5.7 

100.0 




do" 




2$ 


Age 


No. of 

Deer 

29 

16 

14 
7 
2 

3 


Percent 
of Total 

40.3 

22.5 

19.7 
9.9 
2.3 
4.2 


No. of 
Deer 

13 

14 

10 

2 

4 

4 


Percent 
of Total 


5l + 


34.6 

26.9 

19.2 

3.3 

7.7 

7.7 


Total 


71 


99.9 


52 


99.9 


Unaged 










GRAND TOTAL 


167 













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- 7 - 

From the percent yearlings figure in Table VIII, the 
mortality of the deer herd is from 31 - 45% (95 percent confidence 
level) . 

Figure II illustrates the normal age class distribution for 
populations experiencing a 31 - 45 percent mortality, compared with 
the age class distribution for the sample drawn. The shaded areas 
for the observed age class distribution are the ranges set at the 
25 percent confidence level. The shaded areas for the theoretical 
age class distribution are the range between 31 - 45 percent mortality 
for each age class. 

From Figure II it can be seen that the age class distribu- 
tion for the deer population in Bruce County follows closely the 
theoretical age class distribution. 

TABLE IX - Lactation of Does - County of Bruce 

Age Milking Dry 

if 

i 

5i + 



4 


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3 


30% 


6 


54% 


1 


- 



Totals 21 45.7 



12 


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2 


20% 


5 


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1 


- 


2 


- 


3 


- 


25 


54.3 



Excluding yearling does, Table IX shows 57% of all does 
were lactating. This suggests a pregnancy rate of 37 - 75% among 
adult does. (95% confidence level). This is almost certainly too 
low, and leads to the questioning of the validity of milk in the 
udder at the time of the hunting season as a criterion for evaluating 
pregnancy in does. 

While some does breed as fawns, the sample size of lactat- 
ing yearlings is not large enough to give any accurate measurement, 
(range 3 - 55% at 95% level). 

Grey County 

Data were collected in Grey County by Officers in the field, 
Unfortunately records were not kept in such a way as to make a 
calculation of hunter success possible for this county. Also deter- 
mination of hunter pressure by the day cannot be calculated. 



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Tuble No, X shows the total deer checked in Grey County. 
The figure appearing under the classification w not aged" are deer 
shot on the Meaford A.F.V. Range. These deer were not available 
for aging, but the Officer reports a sex ratio of 19s22 6d° e QQ, This 
is not significantly different from an even ratio. (chi square = 
0.22). 

The observed sex ratio for adult deer is 93 s72 d6i92. This 
is not significant (chi square = 2.66) from an even ratio. With all 
deer included (sample size 200) the sex ratio is not significantly 
greater than an even ratio (chi square = 2. 38). Although data from 
other years are not available for comparison the high values of chi 
square suggest a preponderance of bucks, as was the case in Bruce 
County. 



TABLE NO. X - Total Deer Checked - County of Grey 
Number of Deer 



Percent of Total 



Adult Bucks 74 

Adult Does 50 

Buck Fawns 19 

Doe Fawns 16 



Total 


159 


Unaged 


41 


GRAND TOTAL 


200 



Adult Bucks 46.5% 
Adult Does 31.4% 
Fawns 22.0$ 



Total 



99. 



TABLE XI - 


Percentages 


Adult Deer 


By Age 


Class - Grey 


County 


99 






All 


Deer 




66 








No. of 


Percent 


No. of 


Percent 


No. of 


P. 


ercent 


Age 


Deer 


of Total 
21.8 


Deer 
15 


of Total 
20.3 


Deer 
12 


0: 


f Total 


3} 


27 


24.0 


34. 


27.4 


18 


24.3 


16 




32.0 


39 


31.4 


19 


25.7 


20 




40.0 


4? 
5 I 


16 


12.9 


15 


20.3 


1 




2.0 


5 


4.0 


4 


5.4 


1 




2.0 


54 + 


3 


2.4 


3 


4.1 


- 




- 



Total 



Unaged 



GRAND TOTAL 



124 



99.9 



74 



100.1 



50 



41 



165 



100.0 



Figure III compares the theoretical age class distribution 
for a population experiencing a 14 - 31 percent mortality with the 
observed age class distribution. 



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- 11 - 



Because of the sporadic history of deer seasons in Grey 
County, it is not possible to ascertain whether the abundance of 
3t2 year old deer is a strong year class, or if the appearance of so 
many three year old deer is due to sampling or aging errors. 



TABLE XII - Lactation of Does - County of Grey 



Age 



\% 

J 

5J4- 
Totals 



Milk: 


ing 


1 


10 fa 


12 


70 


10 


53 


1 


- 


1 


- 


— 


— 


25 


52 



Dry 



9 


90% 


5 


30 


9 


47 



23 



43 



The table suggests that breeding occurs in 11.1% of the 
female fawns. Limits set at the 95% confidence level are to 45%. 
Hence the sample size is too small on which to base conclusions,. 

Excluding yearlings, 59.4% of the adult does were lactating. 
This indicates breeding in 44 - 33% of does other than fawns. As 
with the figures in Bruce County, this figure is almost certainly 
too low. 



H uron County 

Data were collected in Huron County by field checks by the 
Officers. The hunting success for the County was 19. 3% based on 
116 hunters with 23 deer. The average party size was 4.6 hunters. 

TABLE XIII - Total Deer Checked - County of Huron 



Number of Deer 



Adult Bucks 
Adult Does 
Buck Fawns 
Doe Fawns 



12 

a 

7 
11 



Total 


33 


Unaged and Unsexed 


3 


GRAND TOTAL 


41 



Percentage of Total 

Adult Bucks 31.6% 

Adult Does 21.1% 

Fawns 47.4% 



100.1% 



The sex ratio for adult deer is not significantly higher 
than an even ratio (chi square = 0.30). Limits set at the 95% 
confidence level show a high degree of overlap. (36 - 31% males, 
19 - 64% females). Hence it appears that the deer in Huron County 
exhibited an even sex ratio. 



- 12 - 

TABLE XIV - Percentages Adult Deer By Age Class - Huron Count y 



Age 




All 


Deer 




<Sd 






22 






No. of 


Percent 


No. of 


Percent 


No 


. of 


Percent 






Deer 
4 


of Total 
20.0 


Deer 
3 


of Total 
25.0 


D 


aer 
1 


of Total 
12.5 


4 

2| 






8 


40.0 


4 


33.3 




4 


50, 


,0 


3\ 




7 


35.0 


5 


41.7 




2 


25 


,0 


4s 




1 


5.0 


- 


- 




1 


12 


.5 


n 




- 


- 


- 


- 




- 






5l 


+ 


— 


- 


- 


- 




— 






Totals 




20 


100.0 


12 


100.0 




8 


100 


,0 


Unaged 




3 












GRAND TOTAL 


23 

















Although the above table indicates an unusual age class 
distribution, the sample size is again too small on which to base 
conclusions. On the basis of incidence of yearlings, mortality of 
the herd is 6 - 44$. 

Of 7 does (including 1 yearling) whose udders were checked, 
none was reported as milking. 

Perth County 

Information was collected by Officers during field checks. 
Unfortunately no data are available on which to compute hunter 
success. 



TABLE XV - Total Deer Checked - County of Perth 
Number of Deer 



Adult Bucks 


49 


Adult Does 


37 


Buck Fawns 


22 


Doe Fawns 


12 



Total 



120 



Percentage of Total 

Adult Bucks 40. 8$ 
Adult Does 30.8% 
Fawns 23.3% 



99.9$ 



From the preceeding table, the observed sex ratio is 
49s 37 c?c?s 99 for adult deer. This is not significantly greater 
than an even ratio ( chi square = 1.71). Also the degree of overlap 
of limits set at the 95$ confidence level (31.5 - 54.5$ females and 
68.5 - 45.5$ males), suggests there is no real difference between 
the numbers of males and females. The same conclusions have been 
drawn for the sex ratios of fawns. 



- 13 - 
TaBLE XVI - Percentages Adult Deer By Age Class - Perth Coun ty 



Age 


All 


Deer 






66 








2$ 




No. of 


Percent 


No 


. of 


P 


ercent 


No. of 


Percent 




Deer 
20 


of Total 
23.2 


D 


eer 
12 


o 


f Total 


Deer 
8 


of Total 


a 1 ? 

% 

5h + 




24. 


.5 


21.6 


40 


46.5 




17 




34- 


,7 


23 


62,2 


19 


22.1 




14 




28, 


,6 


5 


13.5 


7 


8.1 




6 




12, 


,2 


1 


2.7 


— 


- 




— 








— 


- 



Totals 86 99.9 49 100.0 37 100.0 



Figure IV compares the observed age class distribution 
with that of the theoretical age class distribution for populations 
experiencing 13 - 34% mortality. 

Figure IV indicates an abundance of two year old deer. 
Because of the sporadic history of season in Perth County, it is 
not possible to determine if this is in reality a strong year class, 
or due to errors in sampling or aging. 





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TABLE XVII 



Age 



Totals 



- 15 - 

L actation of Does - County of Perth 
Milking 

k 51% 
16 $W?o 
5 

1 

mm mm 

26 3l.4 c /o 



3 
3 



6 



Dry 



43< 

16% 



18.7^ 



Figures from the above table indicate a larger population 
of pregnancies among fawns in Perth County than in the other Counties. 
However, limits set at the 2 5% confidence level are 10 - 74%> the 
sample size being again too small. 

Excluding yearlings, &8% of other deer were lactating. 
This indicates pregnancy in 69 - 96% of adult does. The upper limit 
may be approaching the true value of present pregnancy. 

Conclusions 

(1) The number of lactating does at the time of the hunting season 
is not a reliable criterion for the measurement of percent 
pregnancy. 

(2) Sex ratios of deer harvested by hunters are apt to show a 
greater percentage of males than is true for the population of 
deer, because of greater susceptibility of one and one-half 
year old males to hunting. 

(3) It is recommended that Bruce County be opened for deer on an 
annual basis until such time as surveys might indicate a 
depletion of the deer herd. Present surveys indicate the herd 
to be in a well balanced and healthy state. 



- 16 - 



DEER SEASON, KE'TTVILLE DISTRICT - 1957 
Jo B, Dawson 



Due to an extensive road system, checking stations cannot 
be used to obtain deer kill data in Kemptville District. 

Data were collected in 1957 principally by two methods? 

(1) A survey team, composed of the Biologist and Assistant Senior 
Conservation Officer, collected information in the field during 
the hunt . 

(2) Conservation Officers collected deer jaws for aging purposes. 

Data on 390 deer were collected from Kemptville District 
in 1957o Of these deer, 3 65 were aged. 

To reduce the error in aging, all but 36 jaws were carefully 
examined by both the Biologist and Assistant Senior Conservation 
Officer. All jaws were aged by either or both of the above men. 

Deer jaws collected, or deer aged in the field, were as 
follows. 

by District Office Staff 4 

by Mail and Express . 3 

O j wOilbcrVdUlOn UI I lCSrS • eooo««*ooo«ooe»6««o»*o*oooao«ooooooo y O 

by the Survey Team 285 

Total . 390 

Deer checked but unaged . . . 25 

Total Aged .. ............. . 3&5 

Although 365 deer were aged, at least another 100 were shot 
by hunters who were contacted during the season. Both the survey 
team and Conservation Officers found that due to the very mild weather 
throughout the hunt, many deer were cut up and the heads disposed of 
early in the season. 

Although the survey team missed many deer, locating success- 
ful hunters was done more easily than in 1956. Farmers, storekeepers, 
mailmen, etc. were again questioned in the search for successful 
hunters. A list of these was made up during the course of the check 
and should prove valuable in locating deer for aging in future years. 

Data collected will be mainly useful in determining the age- 
class composition of the kill. Since deer were checked at every 
opportunity during the season, hunter success, temporal distribution 
of the kill and effects of weather cannot be accurately assessed and 
will be discussed only on a general basis. 



- 17 - 

TaBLE I - Deer Age-Class Distribution Summary 
District - Kemptville, 1957 



Total deer checked; 
Adult Bucks 120 
Adult Does 123 
Buck Fawns 77 
Fawns Unsexed 19 



390 



Percentage of Deer Checked? 

Adult Bucks 30.7 
Adult Does 31.5 
Total Fawns 37.6 







390 






FawnsDoi 


3 Ratio 1, 


.2 


Adults 


unaged 


25 












Percentages of 


Adult Deer in 


Each Age 


Class 


Sexes 








Bud 


ks 




Does 


Combined 


Age 


No. o 

Deer 

53 


f P 


ercent of 
Total 


No. of 
Deer 

39 


Percent of 
Total 


No. of 
Deer 

92 


Percent of 

Total 


ii 




46.9 


37.1 


42.2 


24 


10 




s.s 


14 


13.3 


24 


11.0 


31 


17 




15.0 


21 


20.0 


38 


17.4 


44 


19 




16.8 


18 


17.1 


37 


16.9 


54 


11 




9.7 


8 


7.6 


19 


8.7 


64 


1 




.9 


2 


1.9 


3 


1.4 


74 


2 




1.8 


1 


1.0 


3 


1.4 


*i 


- 




- 


2 


1.9 


2 


1.0 


TOTALS 


113 




100.0 


105 


100.0 


218 


100.0 


Unaged 


7 






18 




25 




GRAND 
TOTAL 


120 






123 

Average 
Adult Dc 




243 






Averag 
Adult 


;e Ag 
Buck 


e of 

s - 2.89 


Age of 
ies - 3«13 


Average Age of 
All Adults - 3.03 



- id - 

GRaPII I - Age-Classes of Adult Ke mp tville Deer, 1956 and 1957 



40 



30 



20 - 



15 - 



10 - 







P 
e 

r 
c 
e 
n 
t 

o 
f 

K 
i 

1 

1 



Adult Deer Aged 

195^ - 212 
1957 - 21# 



195^ 
1957 




Age In Years 



- 19 - 



Age-Class Distribution 



The 1957 age-class distribution is interesting, if not a 
trifle disconcerting. 

Fawns represent 37.6% of all deer checked; the fawn/doe 
ratio was 1.2 (as compared to 1.4 in 1956). 

Of 125 fawns sexed, 77 or 60.1$ were bucks, 51 or 39.9% 
were does. Adult Bucks and does are present in almost equal propor- 
tions, 30.7 and 31.5%, respectively. 

During field work it was apparent that fawns and does would 
constitute a large proportion of the total kill, (one party of six 
killed six fawns) and many hunters remarked that although sign was 
plentiful bucks did not seem to be moving. 

For the second year in succession, the percentage of 2\ 

year old deer in the sample is low. As both table 1 and graph 1 

indicate, 3h and even 4a year olds were more numerous than 2\ year 
olds in the sample of 218 aged adults. 

Since the 2g age-class constituted only 14.9% of the sample 
in 1956, the possibility of aging errors was not discounted, and 
special care was taken in aging deer in 1957. Many jaws were removed 
from the deer for closer examination, if doubt or disagreement arose 
between the aging team as to the correct age of any deer. 

In 1957 - 1?, year olds represent 1+2, 2% of the adult deer 
aged, while 2\ year olds constitute only 11.0% of the sample. It 
is possible that some 2\ year olds were underaged; however, the 
condition of milk teeth was noted in 77 of the 92 deer classed as 
1^ ears of age - of these 77, 56 or 72,8%, still had their milk 
teeth present. This fact greatly reduces the possibility of error 
in aging this age-class. If some 2\ year olds were overaged, then 
the true percentage of 3| year olds in the sample would be still 
lower than the presently low figure of 17.4%. 

Graph No. 1 compares the age-class distribution of adult 
deer aged in 1956 and 1957. Why these kill figures differ so greatly 
from the expected more normal kill curve is not known. Perhaps the 
high percentage of fawns in the kill will necessitate the aging of a 
larger samples in future. 

H unter Success 

Although no hunter success figures are available, it 
appeared that fewer deer were harvested than in 1956. In general, 
hunters believed that deer were as numerous as in 1956, but that 
weather conditions influenced the hunt adversely. Weather was no 
doubt an influencing factor* temperature fell below freezing on only 
one night during the first week (Nov. 4-9), and on only two nights 
during the second week (Nov. 11-16) . 



- 20 - 



Heavy rains fell on November 2nd and 3rd, while lighter 
showers occurred during the first two days of the hunt. This depre- 
ssed the normally high kill of opening day considerably^ better 
success was enjoyed later during the first week and during the second 
week of the season. 

Although a high proportion of the hunters in this district 
must be: termed casuals, a good many parties contacted hunt the same 
area each year and can be termed organized. Since these parties 
were contacted at any time during the hunt, success figures are not 
available. Names of camp or party "secretaries" have been recorded, 
however, and it is planned to send a questionnaire to these hunters 
each year. This should provide information as to hunter success and 
temporal distribution of the kill, as well as provide more jaws for 
aging purposes. In this way, figures on at least organized party 
success may be made available on an annual basis. 

Weather 

Very mild weather prevailed during the deer season. This, 
combined with rain which fell during 2 days of the 4 day season areas, 
3 days in the 6 day season area, and 4 days in the two week season 
area, no doubt lowered hunting success. 



Deer Season Weather Report - District - Kemptville 



H 32 C 





General 


Conditions 


Ent 


ire 


District 






1957 


Sn 


ow Conditions 






Ground 


Conditions 






?i 


f Ground 


S< 


3ft 


or 




Frozen 


Or Wet Or 




1 


C 


overed 


C: 


rust 


ed 


Rain or Clear 


Soft 


Dry 


Nov. 












Nov. 


2 


















Nov. 


3 


















Nov. 


4 




Nil 








Drizzle all day 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


5 




Nil 








Occasional showers 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


6 




Nil 








Clear and bright 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


7 




Nil 








Clear and warm 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


8 




Nil 








Rain all day 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


9 




Nil 








Clear, windy 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


10 




Nil 










Soft 


Dry 


Nov. 


11 




Nil 








Clear, cool 


Soft 


Dry 


Nov. 


12 




Nil 








Clear, mild 


Soft 


Dry 


Nov. 


13 




Nil 








Cloudy, mild 


Soft 


Dry 


Nov. 


14 




Nil 








Rain all day 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


15 




Nil 








Clear, mild 


Soft 


Wet 


Nov. 


16 




Nil 








Clear, mild 


Soft 


Dry 


Nov. 


17 


















Nov. 


18 


















Nov. 


19 


















Nov. 


20 



















- 21 - 



Condition of Deer 



H 45 



Lactation of Does 



A^e. 



3^ 

TOTAL 



Milking 



N umb e r 


Percent 


9 

14 
6 

3 


90 
100 

35.7 
100 


- 


- 


32 


66.6 



Dry 



Number 


Percent 


13 
1 


100 
10 


1 


14.3 


1 


100 


— 


— 


16 


33.3 



Shedding of Milk Teeth in Yearling s 
Shedding 



Bucks 

Does 

TOTAL 



Number 

12 

9 



Percent 

23.6 
25.7 



21 Ave. 27.1 



Un 


shed 


Number 

30 

26 


Percent 

71.4 
74.3 


56 


72.3 



- 22 - 

Map Ho. I - Distribution of Deer Checked 

Map No. I shows the number of deer checked in each of the 
areas open for hunting during the 1957 season. The number of deer 
checked is not correlated with the actual number of deer killed per 
Township in any way, since the survey crew, of necessity, confined 
their activities to certain areas. 




Nov. 4 

Nov. 4 

Nov. 4 

Nov. 4 



7 shotguns 
only, 
7 shotguns 
no dogs. 



Deer Checked By Townships. 
Kemptville District, November, 1957. 



- 23 - 



Deer Populations 



A survey team concentrated their efforts in parts of 
Grenville, Carleton and Lanark Counties. There appears to have been 
a reasonably good deer population in most of Grenville and Lanark 
Counties and Marlborough Township of Carleton County. 

Moderate hunter success occurred elsewhere in the District. 
A Conservation Officer reports 1+2 known deer kills from Dundas, 
Stormont and Glengarry Counties with hunter success being fair to 
good. 

Reports from Leeds appear to indicate that the deer popu- 
lation of this county is probably the lowest of those areas of the 
District opened to deer hunting in 1957. 

A deer survey, based on the concession block inventory 
system, is planned for Leeds County this winter. We may then be able 
to compare deer densities of this county with those elsewhere in the 
District. 

1957 Deer Data - Marlborough Township * 

This Township, in Carleton County has an area of $5 square 
miles. Of this area, 29$ is cultivated, 32% is abandoned farm land 
(much of which is woodlot and swamp) and 39% is woodlot or unimproved 
land.** 

Much of the township is excellent deer habitat and since 
the area is located about 15 miles from the city of Ottawa, annual 
hunting pressure is high. 

From the second year, an effort was made to check as many 

deer kills as possible from Marlborough. Although &2 deer were 

checked during the 6 day season (compared to 69 in 1956), there is 

no doubt that fewer deer were killed than in 1956. 



* See map 2. 

** Figures from Canada Bureau of Statistics, 1951 Census. 



- 24 - 



Map No, 2 




Plan Showing 

Location of Marlborough 
Township, Kemptville 
District . 



20 10 

i u a 



§ 



I 







- 25 - 



TABLE II - Deer Age-Class Distribution, Marlborough Township, 1957 » 



Total Deer Checked; 82 



Percentage of Deer Checked: 



Adult Bucks 


25 








Adult Bucks 


30.5 




Adult Does 


30 








Adult Does 


36.5 




Buck Fawns 


16 








Total Fawns 


32.9 




Doe Fawns 


11 














Fawns unsexed 


82 








Fawns Doe Rat 


io .9 




Adults unaged 


3 














Percentage of 


Adult 


D 


ser in Each 


Age Class 


Sexes 
No. of 








Bu 


2ks 




Does 


Combined 


Age 


No. o 


f 


Percent 


No. o 


f Percent 


Percent 




Deer 
12 




of Total 
50.0 


Deer 
9 


of Total 
32,1 


Deer 
21 


of Total 




40.4 


1 




4.2 


4 


14.3 


5 


9.6 


3 




12.6 


6 


21.4 


9 


17.3 


4? 


2 




8.4 


6 


21.4 


8 


15.4 


5? 


6 




25.2 


2 


7.0 


8 


15.4 


6 § 


_ 




_ 


_ 


— 


„. , 




4 


_ 




«. 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


ge 


- 


1 


3.5 


1 


1.9 


TOTALS 


24 


100.0 


28 


100.0 


52 


100.0 


Unaged 












GRAND TOTAL 


24 




28 




52 






Avera 


Age of 


Avera 


ge Age of 


Average 


) Age of 




Adult 


Bucks - 


Adult 


Does - 


All Adults - 




3.04 






3.25 




3.09 





- 26 - 



Graph 2 - Age-Classes of Adult Deer, 

Marlborough Township, 1956 and 1957 * 



40 - 



35 r 



P 30 
e 
r 
c 

e 

n 

t 25 



o 

f 



K 

i 

1 
1 



20 



15 



10 - 



5 - 







Adult Deer Aged 

1956 47 

1957 52 




Age in Years 



27 



Table II shows the age-class distribution of 52 adult 
deer aged in 1957. 



1957. 



Graph II compares the age-class distributions for 1956 and 



The 1957 age-class distribution curve for Marlborough 
Township is very similar to the curve for the entire district. Both 
indicate that l| year olds comprise over 1+0% of the entire adult 
kill° both show that the number of 2\ year olds in the sample is low. 

The kill sample from Marlborough is too low, however, to 
draw any definite conclusions as to the actual age-composition of 
the herd. 

It is planned to continue the intensive check in Marlbor- 
ough Township. Attempts will be made to obtain organized camp 
success in the future" kill data obtained will become more useful 
after several years of intensive checking. 

H unting Pressure 

Areas south and east of Marlborough opened on the same 
date, Nov. 4 in 1957, and hunting pressures did not build up in any 
one area at the start of the deer season. Since Marlborough had a 
6 day season, however, many who had hunted in the 4 day season areas, 
hunted in Marlborough for the last two days, Nov. 3th and 9th. 

Hunting pressure has been high in Marlborough Township at 
least for the past two years. The Township was surveyed by helicopter 
on the morning of Nov. 8, and although many hunters who were in dense 
bush were probably not seen, the number of hunters observed indicated 
high hunter density. Unfortunately, flying time was limited due to 
weather conditions, and no tally was made of hunters observed on a 
given area. 

Hunter density estimates range from a low of 10 to a high 
of 50 hunters per square mile in the area containing the best deer 
habitat in Marlborough, (about 40 square miles). 

Checking in 1957 continued through the entire week, and 
many organized parties were checked who had been missed in 1956. 

If 70$ of the deer killed were checked in 1957, then 117 
deer were killed on 85 square miles, or 1.4 deer per square mile. 
Since at least 30$ of the Township is not suitable deer habitat, 
then nearly 2 deer per square mile were killed on the remaining 60 
square miles. 



- 2d - 

NOTES ON THE USE OF AIRCRAFT 
FOR LOCATING DEER IN THE LAKE ERIE DISTRICT 

by 
a. R. Streib and L. J. Stock 



Objectives 

1. To search for deer in randomized concession blocks in Elgin 
County. 

2. To count the deer in isolated or confined areas containing known 
populations in order to determine the percentage of deer seen 
from an aircraft. 

3« To survey typical countryside terrain in areas known to contain 
different deer densities, and if possible obtain an index to the 
population of deer counted per hour. 

4. To search sections of Elgin County intensively to obtain an air 
to ground ratio of deer seen, by comparing the count from the 
air with the inventory being carried out by ground crews. 

Methods 

A Beaver aircraft was used from February 3 to 6 inclusive, 
flying at 90 m.p.h. at a height of 200 feet. A Widgen was used on 
February 19 and 20 flying at 115 m.p.h. at a height of 300 ft. A 
navigator and two observers comprised the crew. All flying was done 
between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. 

A search of the randomized concession blocks began on 
February 3. An inventory by ground crews was being carried on 
simultaneously in the same blocks. 

Intensive searches of isolated or confined areas included 
Rondeau Park forest, the Pinery Park forest, Long Point, Skunks 
Misery (sections of Mosa township, Middlesex County, Euphemia Twp., 
Lambton Co., and Zone Twp., Lambton Co.), the Chemical Plant near 
We Hand and Navy Island. 

In Welland and Haldimand Counties a circular transect was 
followed, beginning and ending at the St. Catharines airport. The 
route was over oypical countryside terrain. Woodlots and swamps 
were searched, usually by circling, in an attempt to obtain a complete 
count • 

In Elgin County, a more intensive search was carried out on 
February 19 and 20. In east Elgin (townships of Southwold, Yarmouth, 

5. Dorchester, Malahide and Bayham) , parallel tracks were followed 
in an east-west direction and woodlots searched en route. 



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- 31 - 

In West Elgin (townships of Aldborough and Dunwich), using 
the north-south sideroads as guide lines, all the major woodlots in 
the two townships were searched systematically. This was a more 
intensive search than in either Welland or Haldimand Counties. 

Discussion and Comments 

1. The search of the randomized concession blocks began on February 
3. The aim was to obtain an air/ground ratio of deer seen, 
based on the inventory conducted by ground crews. However, the 
concession block of approximately one and one-third square miles 
was too small as a satisfactory unit to be searched by aircraft 
flying at 90 m.p.h. at a height of 200 feet. After 50 minutes 
of flying the project was abandoned as impractical. 

2. Isolated and Confined Areas. 

Rondeau Park Forest 

Alternate patches of snow and bare ground rendered observa- 
tion conditions only fair. Complete snow cover would be necessary 
to get a good air/ground comparison of number. 

Pinery Park Forest 

Observation conditions were good in deciduous forest, fair 
to poor in conifers. Most of the deer had apparently vacated the 
area due to extensive activities by the work crews engaged in clear- 
ing, construction and road building. A complete check of the area 
during the previous winter produced no deer and indicated that they 
do not stay in the area in mid-winter. 

Long Point 

Observation conditions were good. Deer were concentrated 
in an area grown up with sparse conifers on well defined ridges. In 
the count of 28 deer there were no duplications. Previous reports 
indicated a herd of at least 20. Our own estimate is a total of 
60 for the entire area. 

"Skunks Misery" 

Observation conditions were good. A search of approximately 
30 sq. miles of continuous deciduous forest produced 15 deer. Deer 
and deer beds were plainly visible. There was no concentration 
comparable to the previous winter when 72 deer were driven from one 
block of approximately 1 sq. mile. It is probable that several 
hundred head would have been counted in the same area during the 
winter of 1956-57. During the winter of 195$ the deer were either 
scattered in smaller herds or concentrated in another area. 

Chemical Plant Near Welland 

This is a fenced enclosure of some 700 acres exclusive of 
buildings, with some lightly wooded areas, containing deciduous trees 
and shrubs. There is no dense cover. Observation conditions were 
excellent and the area was searched intensively. Forty-five of the 
total herd of 100 were counted from the aircraft. 



- 32 - 

N avy Island 

The area is approximately 3$5 acres, of which 40 to 50 
acres is cleared of woods and covered with dense sod. The remainder 
is wooded with a mature stand of mixed hardwoods-chiefly oak, elm, 
ash and basswood. Thirty-five deer were counted from the air. On 
a drive conducted the next day, 45 were counted and the population 
estimated at 60 to 65- 

Welland County 

Conditions for observations were idealo Almost 100% of 
the woodlots surveyed, both small and large contained deer. The 
data shown in the table are exclusive of the Chemical Plant and Navy 
Island which were searched en route. 

Haldimand County 

Observation conditions were ideal. There was a heavy 
concentration of deer, especially in the larger woodlots. In one 
instance, the count from the air was 60 and two subsequent counts 
of deer crossing a road from this woods, were 240 and 60. 

The eastern two-thirds of Haldimand, plus Welland and a 
small part of south Lincoln comprise approximately 800 sq. miles 
and contain a total population of 80004- . i«.e. One-third of the 
total population on 12% of the total area. 

The highest count per hour, 13 5, was recorded in Welland 
County including Navy Island and the Chemical plant. 

The highest count in one day, 412, in 3 hours and 50 
minutes of flying, included Long Point, Haldimand County, Welland 
County and south Lincoln County. 

3. Deer Counted Per Hour of Search as an Index to the Population. 

The results of this survey indicate that under weather 
conditions which permit visual contact flying there is little doubt 
that the count of deer per hour will reveal differences in the 
overall populations such as encountered in Elgin and Welland or 
Haldimand Counties. If the flight pattern, the area surveyed and 
the conditions for observation remain constant, population densities 
between one and ten per square mile may be detected by a count of 
deer seen per hour. 

However, it is also indicated that weather may affect the 
habits of deer to such an extent that where the overall density is 
low (one or less per square mile), few if any deer may be seen from 
the aircraft. The effect of weather on the count in areas of high 
density cannot be compared here since all flying was done in one day 
under ideal conditions in Welland and Haldimand Counties. 

All observations must be modified by weather and ground 
conditions and the probable effects these conditions will have on 
the activities of the deer. 



- 33 - 

4. East Elgin - February 19, 1958. 

Included in this phase of the survey are townships of 
Southwold, Yarmouth, S. Dorchester, Malahide and Bay ham comprising 
4#1 square miles. 

Conditions for observing deer were good. Wildlife counted 
included 25 deer, one fox, one grouse (flying) and one cock pheasant. 

The procedure followed was essentially the same as in 
Welland and Haldimand except that parallel tracks were followed in 
Elgin and the entire area was covered. Woodlots were searched along 
the route. The population based on the 195$ inventory was 210 deer 
or 0.44 per square mile. 

West Elgin - February 20, 1953 

Included in this phase of the survey are townships of 
Aldborough and Dunwich comprising of a total area of 222 square miles. 

Conditions for observing wildlife were good. The total 
count was one deer and one fox. 

This was an intensive search which included all the major 
woodlots, many of the smaller ones and intervening fields. 

The population based on the 195& inventory was 224 deer or 
one per square mile. 

With a population density of more than double that of east 
Elgin, west Elgin produced only one deer while east Elgin produced 
25. This final count on February 20 was under conditions which 
appeared to be better than the previous day. (See weather notes). 

The Value of Tracks as an Indication of Deer Abundance 

An abundance of tracks does not necessarily indicate an 
abundance of deer, especially in areas of low deer density. Farm 
woodlots often contain an abundance of dog tracks, and from an 
aircraft it is generally difficult to distinguish with any certainty 
between the tracks of deer and dogs. 

The observations of this survey are supported by the 
observations of a local train crew operating regularily in the 
District. During the winter of 195# these men voluntarily recorded 
the deer observed, and noted that in Haldimand County herds of up 
to 60 animals were observed, while in "Skunks Misery", including the 
area surveyed by air, not one deer was recorded. This was the first 
time within memory that this crew has not observed deer in the 
latter area. 



- 34 - 

Weather and Ground Conditions 

February 3 

Overcast with strato-cumulus clouds, cold. Wind N.W. 
25 m<,p.h. with gusts to 40 m.p.h. Blowing snow with heavy drifting. 
Ground covered with 10 to 12 inches of snow with a heavy crust. Many 
concession roads blocked with drift s. 

February 4 

Scattered cumulus clouds, some light snow flurries. 
Highest temperature 25°F, Wind SW 15-20 m.p.h. Ground conditions 
in Elgin as on February 3rd. Only a trace of snow in open fields in 
Kent County. 

February 5 

Increasing alto cumulus clouds, sunny. Temperature 32°F 
at noon. Wind W-10 m.p.h. Visibility unlimited. Ground completely 
covered with crusted snow over 12 i? deep. Overcast with stratus 
clouds by night with freezing rain and one-half inch of light snow. 

February 6 

Heavy fog in the morning, calm. Temperature 19°F at 06s30 
a.m. Clearing slowly with sunny intervals in the afternoon. 

February 19 

Overcast strato cumulus clouds with breaks clearing in 
the afternoon. Wind NW 20 to 30 m.p.h. with gusts to 40 in the 
morning, decreasing in the afternoon. Temperature 19°F at London 
at 07s 30, 27°F at noon. Few light snowf lurries with heavy ground 
drifting in the morning, decreasing in the afternoon. Ground 
completely snow covered. Visibility unlimited. This was the last 
day of a severe snow storm, the only one of the winter which blocked 
concession roads and some highways. 

February 20 

Clear and cold. High 25°F. Wind NW 10 to 15 m.p.h.. This 
was followed by a sharp rise in temperature to 3 5°F on February 21, 
with slight drizzle by evening. This was followed by a short cold 
wave on February 22 with a low of 10°F at night. On the 23rd a prol- 
onged mild period began when much of the snow disappeared from the 
fields, leaving only drifts and 10 to 12 inches in the woodlots, 
which crusted heavily following the thaw. 

Su mmar y 

1. The unit used in the ground survey (the township concession block) 
is too small for searching by aircraft. 

2. For calculating the percentage of deer seen from an aircraft, the 
best examples are Navy Island the Chemical Plant near Welland. 



- 35 - 

3. Where the deer population is high over a large area, line tran- 
sects may be more satisfactory than circular transects, since 
there is a probability of counting the same deer more than once 
when circling. 

4. An altitude of 200 feet seems to be the most suitable as deer 
tend to run and show up better when the aircraft is at this 
height. Deer standing still or lying are more difficult to 
observe. 

5. The presence of an abundance of tracks in a farm woodlot is not 
a reliable indication of the presence of deer, unless they can 
be positively identified as deer tracks. 

6. Deer counted per hour of search may be of some value aa an index 
to the population. 

7. The basic problem is to have an aircraft available when there is 
a good chance of the weather remaining constantly good through- 
out the survey period. 






■ 



• 



' 



■ 






- 36 - 



THE DEER INVENTORY FOR ELGIN COUNTY, 1953. 

by 
D. Weill et al 



The co-authors of this report are Conservation Officers 
T. L. Beck, 0. L. Mellick, A. H. Mclntyre, R. W. Finch, D. C. Martin, 
T. A. Carter, G. T. Greenwood and Murray Martin. Assistance was 
given by East Elgin Sportsmen, West Elgin Sportsmen, various other 
individuals, and District Staff. 

One further objective of this preliminary flying was to 
give to as many of the staff as possible, an opportunity to gain 
experience of this kind, as a result approximately one-half of the 
F & W staff is capable of taking part in such a survey. 

The interest and cooperation of the Pilot Chas. Lafevre 
is appreciated. 

Total time in the airs searching 12 hours 2$ mins., 
ferrying 5 hours, 1+2 mins. A total of 18 hours and 10 minutes. This 
includes a landing on Pelee Island and one return to London Airport 
for refueling and lunch. 

O bjectives ; 

1. To take a complete inventory of the deer herd of Elgin County. 

2. To compare the results of sampling two series of random conces- 
sion blocks, each covering approximately 10% of the county area. 

3. To compare the results of the two series of 10% random blocks 
with the overall 20% sample. 

Method s 

Two series of concession blocks, each comprising approxi- 
mately 10% of the total area, were chosen at random and surveyed by 
ground crews. 

The field work was done during the winter by Departmental 
personnel assisted by various interested individuals and sportsmen's 
groups. 

The count of deer in each plot was recorded, taking into 
consideration weather, ground conditions, age of tracks, and all 
evidence indicating the presence or absence of deer on the day of 
the survey. 



- 37 - 

Results ? 

1. Statistics for the inventory. 

Total area of Elgin County 703 square miles 

Total number of plots , 436 

No. of $ of Blow-up Deer 
Plots Actual Area Figure Per Sq. 
Surveyed Count Sampled ( Inventory) Mile 



Series 1 51 33 10.5 372 0.53 
Series 2 43 51 9.9 515 0.73 
Series 3 99 39 20.4 436 0.62 

2. The two series of 10$ random plots compared. 

Series 2 „ 515 deer 

Series 1 ...»•* 372 deer 

Difference 143 deer 

Percent difference . . . „ 8 - 27.3$ of Series 2 

+ 33.4$ of Series 1 

3. The two series of 10$ random plots (Series 1 and 2) compared 
with the overall 20.4$ sample. (Series 3) 

Series 3 • ..<> 436 deer 

Series 1 372 deer 

Difference -64 deer ■ -14.7$ of Series 3 

Series 2 515 deer 

oenes j ...o.sso...o....*.o... 1^,30 Qeer 

Difference 4-79 deer = +13.1$ of Series 3 

The inventory from the 20.4$ sample is considered to be 
the more accurate and is the basis of comparison. 

In this instance, the possible error in the inventory 
ranged from -15$ to +13$ (using round figures) - the result of 
sampling 10$ in lieu of 20$ of the area. 

T he Number of Plots Frequented by Deer 

In the 51 plots of series 1, deer occupied 11 or 19.6$ at 
the time of the survey. In the 43 plots of series 2, deer occupied 
14 or 29$ of the plots. 

In the entire survey deer occupied 25$ of the 99 plots. 



- 3d - 



H erd Sizes Encountered During the Entire Survey 

N o. of Deer No. of Herds Total 

Singles 4 4 

Pairs 6 12 

3 4 12 

4 3 12 

5 3 15 

d is 

12 1 12 

14 1 14 



39 



Discussion and Comments 

When comparing the results of the three series of random 
plots, the overall density of less than one per square mile and the 
herd sizes are important considerations. In the total of 99 plots 
sampled, only two herds of more than five were encountered. One of 
6 and the other of 14. The inclusion or omission of only one of 
these herds would result in an error of approximately -10 or 15$ 
in the expanded total. 

S ummary ; 

1. The inventory based on two series of 10$ random concession 
blocks resulted in a possible variation, in the expanded total, 
of -27. H or 33.4$. 

2. The inventory based on a 20.4$ sample of random concession 
blocks differed from the inventory based on two series of 10$ 
random plots by -14.7$ and 18.1$ respectively. 



- 39 - 

MOOSE BROWSE SURVEY GOGAMA DISTRICT - 1958 

by 
J. A. Macfie 

During the period May 6 to May 9, 1958, an appraisal 
was made of winter browsing on one square mile of moose range in 
the Gogama District. The purpose of the survey was to determine 
to what degree a lightly hunted population of moose was affecting 
winter browse species in typical "good" moose range. In addition, 
at the suggestion of R. Hepburn of the Research Division, 
occurrences of winter droppings were recorded during the survey, 
in order to compare the pellet group count system of estimating 
big game population with the aerial census. 

Methods 

The survey was carried out within the boundaries of a 46 
square mile aerial census plot used for two seasons to sample the 
District's "good" quality moose range. The survey area is 
situated in Carter and Stetham townships, ten miles north of the 
village of Gogama. The location was chosen because it was typical 
of the aerial census plot we planned to sample, a concentration of 
moose was observed there during one census flight, and a landable 
lake nearby rendered it accessible. The method developed by 
Passmore and Hepburn (1955) for winter deer range appraisal was 
used. One square mile of range was sampled, by examining 64 plots 
1/330 acre in size spaced at 5 chain intervals on cruise lines one 
mile long and J mile apart. At the suggestion of H.G. Cuming 
(personal communication) from 2 feet to 10 feet above ground was 
taken as the range within which twigs might be browsed by moose 
instead of the 1.5 to 6.5 feet recommended for deer work. No other 
modifications were applied to the method. 

Pellet group counts were carried on continuously, on the 
chaining between plots as well as on the plots. All pellet groups 
from the previous winter within 6.6 feet of either side of the 
chain were tallied, making a sample strip 1/5 chain wide. The 
field work was conducted by Conservation Officers Paul Endress and 
George Vozeh of the Gogama District. 

Plot Description 

The forest on the sampled area is a mature, open stand 
of white birch, black spruce and white spruce from 60 to 80 feet 
high. Originally, the stand included some white pine, red pine, 
and considerable balsam, but logging removed the pine and probably 
some spruce, and in the early nineteen-forty 's budworm killed the 
balsam. In the wake of this thinning, a strong understory of . ? • 
balsam is rising in the openings. 

Windfall was moderate to heavy following the budworm 
infestation, but by now it is partly rotted down. The topography 
of the study area varies from gently rolling to precipitous. Due 
to frost in the ground, a proper job of soil classification could 



- 40 - 

not be done, but it appeared to be mainly a sandy loam, generally 
of good depth. Moisture was judged to be normal on most plots. 

BROWSE SURVEY 

Extent of Browsing 

Table I summarizes the data from the tally sheets. 
Table II shows in detail the importance of the various species as 
suppliers of browse, and the intensity of browsing. 

Sixteen species of trees and shrubs had twigs within the 
range of availability on the sample plots. Nine of these were 
subjected to browsing during the winter of 1957~5&\ and an 
additional one (white cedar) had one killed specimen but no recent 
browsing. The most widely distributed species was balsam, which 
was found on more than 90$ of the plots, but mountain maple offered 
the most number of stems, comprising about 24$ of the available 
browse. However, mountain ash, while accounting for only 11$ of 
the available browse, provided 50$ of the browse units, making it 
the preferred species in the study area. Mountain maple ranked 
second in terms of browse units, supplying 29$ of the total. No 
other species supplied more than 10$, so mountain ash and mountain 
maple stand out as the most important sources of winter moose food 
on the study area, according to the reasoning of the method of 
analysis. In terms of actual numbers of twigs consumed, bushier 
species such as balsam and hazel probably ranked slightly higher 
than the browse unit system of appraisal implies. 

Although the size of this sample is far too small to 
permit conclusions about the Gogama moose range, it is interesting 
to compare conditions found on the plot with the findings of 
R.L. Peterson (1953) in the St. Ignace Island area. In the order 
of preference, Peterson found that willow, dogwood, elder and 
cherry ranked above mountain ash, the most highly preferred species, 
and the greatest supplier of browse in the Gogama study area, but 
those four species were either scarce or not present on the Gogama 
plots. And, in the order of importance as suppliers of winter 
browse, balsam and white birch ranked above mountain ash in the 
St. Ignace area, whereas the former species, while plentiful, were 
largely ignored by moose at Gogama. 

Severity of Browsing 

Of the more common species on the study area, only 
mountain ash, which was 24.4$ browsed during the winter of 1957-58, 
and 15,6$ mutilated and 5.1$ killed by earlier browsing, could be 
considered to be heavily browsed. Pin cherry suffered some 
mutilation and killing prior to 1957-58, but it is not plentiful in 
the area. Mountain maple, the most plentiful species and a 
preferred moose food, was only 6.6$ browsed, and balsam and hazel, 
both prominent on the plots and commonly eaten by moose, were 
utilized to an even lesser degree. 



- 41 - 

Conclusions Regarding Browsing 

Although mountain ash is probably being retarded, no 
other species common in the area is suffering damage from moose 
browsing. Commercial tree species are not being affected by the 
high moose population. At its present stage of forest succession, 
the range in the vicinity of the study area could support a higher 
moose population than the present one (estimated to be 2 per square 
mile) without danger of over-browsing. 

PELLET GROUP COUNT 

Pellet groups of the season (those deposited between the 
1957 leaf fall and the time of the survey) were recorded on a 
strip 320 chains long and 1/5 chain wide, or a total of .01 square 
miles. A total of 119 groups was counted. In arriving at the 
divisor in the final calculation below, a winter browsing period 
of 204 days and a pellet group deposition rate of 14. 9 groups per 
day were used. The beginning of the period of deposition of winter 
type droppings was more or less arbitrarily set at October 15th. 
(The leaf fall was complete at about that time). The daily 
deposition rate was taken from H.G. Cumming ? s report (unpublished) 
of a moose browse survey in the Geraldton District in which he 
quoted the figure, giving as its source a summary by R.Y. Edwards 
of observations on pellet group deposition in British Columbia. 

Number of pellet groups per square mile: 

119 x 1 = 11,900 
.01 

Number of moose per square mile: 

11,900 = 3-9 

204 x 14.9 

The aerial census plot in which the study area is 
situated was censused on Dec. 18, 1957 and Jan. 8, 1958. The 
average winter density of 3-9 moose per square mile derived from 
pellet group counts may be compared with the aerial census findings 
in three ways : 

1) Actual counts during the two flights amounted to 1.4 and 
1.7 moose per square mile respectively. Allowances for unseen 
moose (based on visibility during flights) increased these to 1.8 
and 2.0 per square mile, and the latter figure was used in compiling 
the 1958 inventory. 

2) The study area is situated in a 6.6 square mile 
physiographic unit bounded on one side by a burn and elsewhere by 
lakes and other topographical features which would to some degree 
confine moose to the area. Here, the December aerial survey 
revealed 1.7 moose per square mile (corrected to 2.2) and the 
January survey 2.3 (corrected to 2.7). 



- L.2 - 



3) Finally, on the one square mile covered by the ground 
survey, no moose were seen in December and 8 (corrected to 9-8) 
were seen in January. 

Conclusions Regarding Pellet Group Count 

The most recent aerial census placed the moose population 
on the 46 square mile plot within which the ground survey was done 
at 2.0 per square mile, and during one census flight 8 moose were 
seen on the one square mile covered by the ground census . The 
location chosen for the ground survey plot was probably favored by 
moose over certain other sections of the aerial census plot. The 
average winter population of 3-9 per square mile derived from 
pellet group counts seems reasonable. 

Literature Cited 

1. Passmore, R.C. and R.L. Hepburn. 

1955 . A method for appraisal of winter range 
of deer. Ont. Dept. Lands & Forests 
Research Report No. 29. 

2. Peterson, R.L. 

1955. North American Moose. University of 
Toronto Press. 

In addition, considerable guidance was provided by 
H.G. Cumming's unpublished report on moose browse surveys in the 
Geraldton District. 



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- 45 - 



MOOSE INVENTORY, 1953, GOGAMA DISTRICT 

by 
J, Ao Macfie 



1. The following is shown in tho appendices? 

A. A series of maps of census plots showing moose observed. 

B. A map showing the density distribution of moose and the location 
of census plots. 

C. A graph showing the age structure of the moose herd during the 
period 1955-57. 



2. Moose Population Estimates 



Density Class 

Good 
Fair 
Poor 



Area 



2,285 sq. mi. 
2,050 sq. mi. 
1,680 sq. mi. 



Moose/sq. mi. No. of Moose 



1, 


.9 


4, 


,341 


0, 


,86 


1 


,763 


0, 


,24 




405 



Total moose population 



6,509 



Six sample plots were censused this year? three in "good" 

range, two in iS poor u range and one in ''fair' 5 range. In the first 

two cases the results were averaged to get the density factor used 
in the table above. 

This year's moose population estimate is much larger than 
that of 1957« The difference may be credited to a more efficient 
job of censusing, better knowledge of the moose range in the District, 
and an actual increase in the moose population. The weather was 
persistently bad from late January to early March, and an experimental 
wolf censusing project took priorit]/" during rare sunny periods, so 
the plots weren't surveyed as often as was intended. However, we got 
more done than in 1957» During the past year the District "moose 
type 15 map was improved considerably, reducing the amount of guesswork 
involved in deciding what parts of the District the sample plots 
represented. The location of two of the plots (58-1 and 5$-2) 
remained unchanged from last year, except for minor boundary adjust- 
ments, and both produced significantly higher counts of moose for 
the same effort. This is evidence that moose increased locally, 
and it appears that comparable increases occurred in most parts of 
the District. 

A erial Survey 

Plot 58-4 is situated in a heavily hunted region, plots 
5&-1 and 58-5 receive moderate hunting pressure, and the remainder 
are but lightly hunted. 



- 46 - 

Each of the six plots was surveyed once by the sub-plot 
method described by Trotter (1957) and 58-1 and 5^-2 were surveyed 
once by the strip method. The sub-plot system proved to be the 
better, for 10$ and 24% more moose respectively were found when it 
was used. It will be noted that the plots are clustered closely 
around Gogama, with one exception. Although a broader distribution 
would be better, flying time is precious during the brief periods 
when the sky is clear and the sun is high enough for successful moose 
censusing. 

S ex and A ge Structure of the Herd 

We neglected to record sex and age data on the two surveys 
made in December, when identification was easiest. It will be seen 
that calf counts made in January are low, but this is due in part at 
least to the difficulty of identifying them. It is worthy of note 
that a year ago we ventured the guess that the survival of calves 
from the 1956 crop was poor, basing our opinion on, among other things, 
observations made during the aerial census. Yet the percentage of 
lj year-olds in the adult moose jaw sample rose from ±8% in 1956 to 
29% in 1957> proving us completely wrong. Perhaps attempts at deter- 
mining sex and age should be confined to pre-Christmas flights, when 
antlers are still on and calves are smaller. 

As the series of graphs in appendix C illustrates, we are 
still drawing on the bumper crops of moose produced around the begin- 
ning of this decade, but they will soon pass out of the picture. 
The fading of this group and the prominence of l| year-olds in the 
1957 harvest have created a better-balanced herd, in easily hunted 
sections at least, than we have had in recent years. 

Distribution of Moose Within Plots 

Examination of the maps for plots 5^-1 and 5^-2 will show 
that there was a dispersal of groups of moose between December and 
January. This might have been the result of a Christmas week thaw 
that lowered the snow several inches. The second survey of 5#-l was 
carried out 30 days after the first, yet most of the moose seem to 
have remained within a mile or two of where they were first seen. 

A cursory comparison of these plots with results obtained 
in earlier years does not reveal any preference on the part of the 
moose for particular sections, except that on plot 58-1 they appear 
to shun one five square mile tract. The plot was surveyed twice in 
1956 (as part of a larger plot used in the censusing experiments) 
once in 1957 and twice this year, yet of the aggregate of 223 moose 
tallied, none were seen in this one-eighth of the plot which outwardly 
appears similar to the remainder. 



- 47 - 




Moose Plot GO 53-1 
Moose seen 1st surveys {Tj 
Moose seen 2nd survey; (y 



- tf - 




R B L I N 




Tatachikapika 



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U^H A z e n 



E T H A M 



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Moose seen 1st surveys Q] 
Moose seen 2nd surveys Q 



~ 49 - 




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Moose seen 1st survey: "\3 
Moose seen 2nd surveys Q 



- 50 - 




GG 5B-4 

Moose seen 1st survey? £lj 
Moose seen 2nd survey: (±) 



51 - 




GG 53-5 
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Moose seen 2nd surveys @ 



- 52 ~ 




Claw Lak 



K E L V III 



GG 5%-'> 

Moose seen 1st survey Clj 
Moose seen 2nd survey Q-} 



- 53 - 








G G A li A DISTRICT 



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Moose Density Distribution, 195$ 




GG 5^-4 



GG 5#-5 



GG 5^-1 



Good Range 1.9 moose per sq. mi, 
(~~j Fair Range .36 moose per sq. rni. 
E51 Poor Range .24 moose per sq. mi. 



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- 55 - 



AERIAL MOOSE INVENTORY - SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT, 1953 

by 
P. Kwaterowski 



During February and March 19 5$ the aerial moose census was 
carried through in the Sault Ste. Marie District. It must be stated 
that this survey was seriously handicapped by several factors such 
as non-availability of aircraft and unfavourable weather conditions. 
This resulted in the fact that the census as planned could not be 
completed leaving a possible error in our estimate which otherwise 
could have been more correct. 

methods 

As in the previous year several hours were spent with Grant 
Denley the pilot for the entire survey. His experience and familiar- 
ity with the district was of essential assistance not only during the 
planning stage but also later for the actual aerial census. Repre- 
sentative samples of various timber types were graded according to 
our estimate as poor, fair and good moose range. Hunting pressure 
and kill during the last three years was considered and the plots 
chosen accordingly. In such a way four plots were selected. 

Kirkpatrick Lake 

This plot bordering one of the heaviest hunted areas was 

chosen as the best representative sample for good moose range. From 

this area we should be able to determine the effects of heavy hunting 
pressure in the immediate vicinity. 

Tikamaganda Lake 

This area was considered a fair to good moose range with no 
hunting pressure at all. This area should give us a very good exam- 
ple concerning the increase in population. 

T unnel Lake 

A heavy hunted area of poor to fair moose range. This area 
on the other hand was supposed to indicate the effect of intensive 
hunting on the moose population of the same area. 

St. Joseph Island 

It was decided to include St. Joseph Island in the survey 
as here we had to deal with an area with an approximate known number 
of moose. It was realized that the St. Joseph Island census would be 
of little value to the actual estimate for the Sault Ste. Marie 
District. This area was solely included in the sample plots as it 
was felt that on the other hand we could work out a relatively useable 
''correction factor" for the entire district by comparing forest type, 
hunting pressure, tract concentrations, moose counted and moose 



- 56 - 



present. In addition to these four sample plots, it seemed advisable 
to devote at least three flights on special flight lines which would 
cover different moose range, known summer and winter concentrations, 
heavy and light hunting pressure, different human population concentra- 
tions and most important of all such flight lines should cross the 
sample plots in order to have a sound basis for comparison. We felt 
that such track counts would give a more general picture of the entire 
moose population for the district. By these track counts we felt 
that a relatively correct estimate was possible. 

Objective 

As can be seen the objective was not only to make an inten- 
sive inventory of the existing moose population but as well to obtain 
detailed information of the effects of different hunting pressures 
on the moose herd. 

Procedures 



Flight procedures were in accordance with instructions 
received from Maple except for the St. Joseph Island where the inter- 
vals varied according to the decision of the pilot. During the track 
count no circling over track concentrations was performed. Only 
tracks according to abundance were recorded. Moose seen on this line 
were also recorded without any attempt to ascertain the exact number 
of the area. Altitude and air speed was in accordance with instruc- 
tions from Maple. 



Findings 

A 

was not abl 
mentioned, 
during the 
relatively 
St. Joseph 
utes were s 
seven minut 
follows: - 



s mentioned in the be 
e to make a thorough 

It is, however, beli 
limited time at our d 
close estimate for th 
Island in January, a 
pent over the plots. 
es were spent for one 



ginning the Sault 
census because of 
eved that the asce 
isposal are suffic 
e district. Besid 
total of six hours 
An additional two 
track count. The 



Ste. Marie District 
reasons already 
rtained results 
ient to come to a 
es a preflight over 
and thirteen min- 
hours and twenty- 
breakdown is as 



Plot 



St. Joseph Island 
Tikamaganda 
Kirkpatrick 
Kirkpatrick 
Track Count 



St. Joseph Island Area 



Date 



Time Over the Plot 



February 13th 
February 14th 
February 14th 
March 4th 
February l#th 



GRAND TOTAL 



1 hour 
1 hour 
1 hour 

1 hour 

2 hours 



45 minutes 
55 minutes 
2 5 minutes 
1$ minutes 
27 minutes 



# hours - 40 minutes 



Only the south-eastern part of the Island, representing the 
known moose range, was surveyed^ approximately seventy square miles. 
Covers- mixed stand" interspersed with open abandoned farm land. 
Predominantly hardwood, timber mostly in the pole stage, abundant 
regeneration. Accessibility? excellent, numerous roads. First 
special moose season of nine days in 1957. Kills twenty-two moose. 



- 57 - 

Remaining estimated moose population - fifty (estimated according to 
moose actually seen and track concentration. This estimate represents 
the combined estimate of three individual observers, the writer of 
this report estimates the population to be about fifty. Conservation 
Officer Maurice Barton gives an estimate of forty-five to fifty moose 
and a local trapper estimated the population from fifty to sixty 
moose. These estimates were made independently and therefore may 
represent a relatively correct estimate). Pre-f lights twelve moose 
seen. Two groups of six each. 

S urvey 

No moose seen. This may be accounted to the cold subnormal 
weather" the mercury stayed below zero during the afternoon of the 
survey. Track concentrations around the dense coniferous stands were 
probably moose seeking shelter against the cold. 

Tikamaganda Lake 

Areas fifty square miles. Covers older mixed stand 
(maple and yellow birch absent) Predominantly coniferous. Accessi- 
bilitys very poor. Reported Kills nils 1956, nils, 1957, nil. 
Moose seen during the survey (1 flight fifteen moose seen in 1957 - 
7 (1 flight). Track concentrations heavy, indicating a much higher 
number of moose. 

Kirkpatrick 

Areas forty-eight square miles. Cover mixed stand, pine, 
spruce, maple, birch, trembling aspen etcetera scattered all over the 
plot. The northern part of the plot slightly extended into the 194$ 
burn. Accessibilitys two roads into the northern part, suitable 
lakes for aircraft landing throughout the sample area. Reported kills 
1955-^1 1956-7? 1957-9. Moose spotted during two flights - 35? last 
year's count (3 flights) twenty-three. Track concentrations very heavy. 

Tunnel Lake Area 

Time and weather conditions did not permit a survey of 
this plot which no doubt would have furnished valuable information. 

S pecial Tract Count 

Unfortunately only one flight could be carried through. 
The flight line covered two hundred and forty-six miles. Tracks 
encountered ranged from very abundant to none. (See Map 1) Four 
moose were seen and recorded on this flight. 

Discussion 



Due to the restricted flying hours over the sample plots 
it is difficult to come to a correct estimate. In general it is felt 
that the moose population is slightly increasing on a district wide 
scale. Comparing the kill figures for 1956 and 1957 it is noticed 
that the total kill dropped somewhat. If we now consider the weather 
during the hunting season we have to admit that the weather was not 



- 53 - 

too favourable o Unseasonable warm weather in the beginning of the 
moose season with much rain doubtlessly handicapped the hunters. 
The first snow fell on November 9th. To that time the post-rutting 
movements have ceased^ rendering it more difficult to find the 
animals. After a warm spell in the middle of November heavy snow 
reduced the accessibility to many good moose ranges for quite a time. 
Heavy rains about the middle of December again made moose hunting 
very difficult. It is, therefore, felt that the lower kill does not 
indicate a decrease in the districts moose population. 

On the other hand, last year ? s kill figures compare favou- 
rably with this year's take for most areas indicating that the balance 
between annual reproduction, annual take is not upset at all. Only 
the heaviest hunted areas are showing an insignificant decrease, 
however, it is completely premature to draw any definite conclusions 
concerning these areas. 

It has clearly been demonstrated by the Lake Tikamaganda 
plot that the moose population is increasing considerably in such 
areas with no or light hunting pressure. This area alone showed an 
increase of eight moose for fifty square miles. How great the 
actual increase is cannot yet be stated as the desired correction 
factor for the aerial moose census has not yet been found. It can 
safely be assumed that the increase is much higher. The Kirkpatrick 
Lake plot showed a good example how the population can increase even 
if the heaviest hunted areas are in the immediate vicinity and no 
doubt a number of moose drift into these heavily hunted areas. Last 
year's census for this area was twenty-three moose spotted during 
three flights. This year's survey produced thirty-five moose for 
only two flights. In order to demonstrate it more clearly it must 
be mentioned that during the first flight a total of twenty-six moose 
were seen and only nine during the second one, which was carried out 
after a warm spell when rocks and stumps showed through the snow, 
distracting the attention of the observer and making recognition of 
the moose extremely difficult. Furthermore, the moose were not moving 
despite numerous low circles over the area. During the entire survey, 
when fifty moose were seen by all crew members, only four were ac- 
tually running, the remaining ones hardly stopped feeding, looking 
up occasionally only. Also, the moose bedded down could not be 
persuaded to get up. It was impossible to sex the moose from the air. 
Two young bulls only could clearly be identified as they still 
carried their antlers. The older bulls had shed their antlers a 
long time ago rendering identification impossible. It also was next 
to impossible to distinguish between cows and calves. 

For last year, a density map has been submitted giving 
three areas in which the moose population ranged from one animal to 
ten plus per square mile, to one animal per five to ten square miles 
and one moose per two to five square miles (see map 2). It is felt, 
however, that such a density map lacks accuracy and should not be 
submitted. If we consider the first area, namely one animal to ten 
plus per square mile we immediately will come to the conclusion that 
this is false by taking the 1956 and 1957 kill for this area into 



- 59 - 

account • This area covers approximately 1,200 square miles with a 
moose population of less than one hundred and twenty (according to 
the density map)., The kill in this area in 1956 was about one hundred 
and thirty moose, in other words, more moose than actually indicated. 
The kill during last year again was more than one hundred moose. 
This figure will indicate that the kill for this area did not exceed 
enormously the annual reproduction and consequently the density for 
this area is much higher than stated for last year's inventory. It 
is realized that we cannot separate this area as a special unit and 
that considerable refilling takes place from adjoining areas. However, 
we have to admit that drawing a moose density map has to be done very 
carefully in order to obtain a correct situation. 

On the other hand, the kill figures for the last two years 
indicate clearly two points^ the actual moose population for this area 
is much higher and secondly, that there still exists quite a favour- 
able balance between kill and reproduction. In addition, it can be 
taken for granted that considerable movement takes place during the 
year, a fact which has to be considered for future moose management 
plans. 

That the summer and winter ranges for moose vary consider- 
ably has been definitely proven. During summer and fall heavy moose 
concentrations were found in areas which showed no moose during the 
winter months. 

Due to above mentioned considerations it seems inadvisable 
to prepare a special moose density map for the Sault Ste. Marie 
District as this would be misleading, having value only either for 
winter or summer densities. 

There can be no doubt that some areas indicate a density of 
one animal per square mile. However, such population pockets are 
scattered all over the district rendering it most difficult to map 
correctly all concentration because of their characteristic small 
sizes. It is therefore, suggested that an average density of one 
animal per three square miles is probably the most correct estimate 
and can safeJy be applied for the entire district. Consequently the 
moose population for the Sault Ste. Marie District amounts to approxi- 
mately 2,800 moose. 

S ummary 

It is felt that the aerial moose inventory gives us a 
relatively correct estimate and should be continued from year to year. 

It appears that the track counts in connection with the plot 
sampling has a definite value for a correct estimate of the moose 
population and will especially be valuable in preparing a winter 
density map. Observations during summer and early fall indicate that 
the moose travel considerable distances from summer to winter ranges. 
Higher moose concentrations extending over several square miles are 
found throughout the entire district. Despite a probable insignifi- 
cant decrease in moose population for the most heavily hunted areas 
the moose herd of the Sault Ste. Marie District is increasing. 



- 60 - 

A correction factor unfortunately could not be worked out 
because of limited time and unfavourable weather conditions. The 
estimated moose population for the Sault Ste. Marie District amounts 
to approximately 2,300 moose or one animal per three square miles. 
Weather conditions considerably effect the moose count. More detailed 
studies on this factor are urgently required. 

Suggestions 

It is suggested that for future moose surveys the same crew 
members should be available for the entire inventory. According to 
own experience the first flight of a crew member is of no great value 
to the object. It is more or less a time to become acquainted with 
the work. It has been observed that crew members become more exper- 
ienced after several flights. It is by no means advisable to force 
crew members to take part in the survey, only interested persons and 
especially such persons who do not become airsick should be selected. 
Changing the crew members too frequently means additional instructions 
before each individual flight and the correctness of the census is 
either questionable or the project becomes more time consuming. It 
seems advisable to get the crew members together before the survey 
and outline and discuss the program so that everybody fully under- 
stands his mission. It is recommended that sample plots should be on 
areas with different hunting pressures, as well as on different moose 
habitats as this will give valuable information concerning the effects 
on hunting, facts which no doubt will become indispensable for future 
moose management. 

Acknowledgments 

This report cannot be concluded without expressing deepest 
appreciation to pilot Grant Denley* His untiring enthusiasm was of 
the greatest value to the entire project. His efforts and personal 
interest deserve commendation. 



- 61 - 

MAP NO. 1 - SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT 




North Channel 



Plan Showing Track Count 



Abundant 



Moderate 

4 4 4 J F ew 

*xx/. No tracks 

Planned flight lines 



20 2D 

I i-T-J U-t 



20 



40 



i .• • 






62 



MAP NO. 2 - SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT 




Sault 



£=> 



Plan Showing Moose 1955-56 
] 1 1 animal per 2-5 square miles 
(X^ 1 animal per 5-10 square miles 
||e| 1 animal per 104- square miles 



10 







£ 



40 



- 63 - 

MAP NO. 3 - SaULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT 



j x x x x x x x. x x xx x x 
yx xx xxx xx xx xxx 

x xxx XX X X X X X X X 
?X xx XX XXX XXXX K 

X X xx xxx xxxxx^v 

A J X X x x x x x x, x * 
X * X XXX xxx 
*x*X * XX x KX0 







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/5 XxXxx 



o 



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X X x X X x X X X X x < 

y x x x x x x x X X X X X '< I 
\x x X X X X x X X x'X X x« 
XX XX X XX XX X x; . 

XX xxxxxxxx^ 

A x X X X.^M^ 



~ x * * x *# Pax 

__. x- x x x x MM #rx> x x 
— x x x x i^Mrf- 



xxxx xx/A x x :x k-\ n 



r-fcc X X < X X x X X x •*$< 



V* 



f«t x -x x x x x X **^V#V 



Sault Ste 



PTJrX 

i*x* A x ; x /x;xxx -, 

'\ X.'XX'x XXX* 





'v ' ; a«a^ A, aaa i rnw " 

X x xrx x xxx xx ^/f xx 

- x *xx xx x.xX <%% x - 

— y :x; x xxxxx^3x - 



xxxxxx^ 

—XxXXxX^X" 



W o 



X X X X X X -rv 

< £_x_ x * x 



X x XX X 
x .xx 



Plan Showing Moose Density 
Winter, 1957- 5$ 

1 moose per square mile 

liiil 1 moose per 3 square miles 

r — :\ 1 moose per 5 square miles 

[SSI 1 moose per 10 square miles 




20 10 
I I — -t I — I 



2.0 



M 







- 64 - 

METHODS AND COSTS OF COLLECTING MOOSE RETURNS 
PORT ARTHUR DISTRICT, 1957 SEASON 

by 
D. D^Agostini 



Methods 

1. Each hunter, on purchasing his license, was given a copy of our 
District News Release of September 30, 1957 (copy attached) and 
a few verbal remarks, as to the value of information gathered 
from moose jaws and moose returns. 

2. 1700 notices were mailed to delinquent hunters at the end of 
December, 1957« Envelopes contained a stamped moose return and 
a letter stating reasons for requesting the moose returns and 
thanking them for their co-operation in this phase of wildlife 
management o These notices were addressed, license numbers 
inserted on moose return, as well as placing notice and accom- 
panying letter in envelope, by a local addressing service. 

3. On February 20-21, the local Fish and Wildlife staff contacted 
delinquent hunters by telephone. The telephone numbers were 
registered on the book covers at the time licenses were purchased. 

4« Personal contact was made by Conservation Officers. 

5. On Mondays from 6; 30 to 7s00 p.m., the Thunder Bay District Fish 
and Game Association have a T.V. programme. The programme 
chairman, as well as the Fish and Wildlife staff (whenever they 
were present), made announcements requesting moose returns and 
reasons for requesting same. 

6. For Non-Residents, a book was made up and placed at the Pigeon 
River Customs Office. The pages were ruled and contained the 
same information as the moose returns and the data were recorded 
by the Customs Officers when the hunters left Ontario. 

Results of Methods Used 

Resident - 

Telephone calls ......*....« 14$ 

.T erSOnajL COllUctCU oo.o«eoeeosac.o*c.«o«».*ooe«.....«oo«o.«o.o ^- J 

Received before mailing of notices ....••oo...oo. ■••«•• 445 

The remaining 1,341 returns were a result of a combination 
of the other methods used. 

Non-Resident - 

The book at the Customs Office achieved 100% success, as 
all 92 Non-Residents who purchased licenses in this District checked 
out at this point. 



- 65 - 



C ost of Pro j ect 

Resident - 

Addressing „ «. «> 4? 17o00 

GudJllpS »»eooo..o.o.c.o.oo«ooooo.e..ooo.o»o.o..o.......» _LU<C o Uu 

Man days - 9 © U3.00 <,.„ 117.00 

Mileage - 325 @ H c 19-50 

otationery • .••••e«o«....«.eo.«*. ....... ............... h>u <> uu 

I'll S C e _L-LaneOUG • .••oo.oco.«.e.oooo«ooooe»a.o.o«.o.o.o.». H" • ?U 

i U 1 Ai-J oooo«coooeo<5»ooooooo«ooooooooo««ooe«>oooeoo9ooooo <jp J UU e UU 

Cost per Resident return .oeos.oeoo.o.o.oo <> » » . . . 15»30 

Non-Resident - 

This cost would be very minor, as only a little time was 
spent on making up the book and other work was done during regular 
patrols. 

Recommendations 

1. That no personal contact be made to collect moose returns, except 
when it is incidental to other work« 

2. A new card be made up to be mailed to delinquent moose hunters. 
The card to be twice the size of the present card and of the 
same material and to be perforated across the centre for easy 
folding and tearing. The card to be mailed folded and held 
thus by the postage stamp. Licensees license number, name 

and address to be typed on perforated rolled or sheet labels, 
then torn off, moistened and fixed to the card and the license 
number marked on the moose return. 

It is felt that the verbal remarks and letter distributed 
to hunters when purchasing licenses had much to do with the great 
increase in return of moose jaws. 



oo 



copy 



Weekly Report District of 
Port Arthur 



Edited by H. Les Brewer Week ending Sept. 30, 1957 

Appeal to Moose Hunters 

Moose population is of vital interest to all moose hunters. 
Whether or not a hunter gets his moose this year, he still looks 
forward to the one he is going to get next year and the years after. 

In order to fulfil his wishes, Wildlife Management is 
necessary. The study of "Wildlife Management has been an important 
phase of this Department's work for many years and is definitely 
showing results today. There is, however, still much more to 
accomplish. It is a task that will never end. 

In this District this year surveys of the local moose 
population has been made both on the ground and from the air, at 
various times during the year. 

Much laboratory research has been conducted on jaw bones, 
teeth and various organs of moose gathered during last year's 
hunting season. 

Recent research on age criteria for moose suggests that 
the disposition of cementum on the roots of certain teeth may be a 
reliable indicator of age. 

This, combined with surveys, known sex, locality and other 
factors, aid in calculating the herd condition and virtual population 
in any given area. 

But no matter how much effort is put into this research 
problem, by Department officials, they alone cannot achieve the 
success necessary to develop a real program of Wildlife Management 
without help. That - Mr. Moose Hunter - is where you come into the 
picture. Just a few minutes of time and little effort on the part 
of Everyone of you will make a contribution to the program, the 
importance of which you probably do not realize. 

Please fill out the Moose Return Form in every detail. The 
sex, date shot, locality shot in, etc., all have a bearing on popula- 
tion, age and other factors being determined. 

The importance of sending in the lower jaw cannot be 
stressed too much. Of course it is realized that occasionally a 
hunter bags a moose with a trophy head. A head he will want to 
display for years. If that happens to you, will you please, at least, 
extract one Central Incisor Tooth and forward it with all applicable 
information? 

Every moose hunter can make a very important contribution 
to work of Wildlife Management, by giving the Department the co- 
operation requested. 

Only through successful Wildlife Management are you and 
yours assured of successful hunting in the years to come. 

W.L. Sleeman, 



- 67 - 





stamp 




Moose returr 


i form in this space. 

fold 


•OT.j12q.uo 'anqcMV Q-^od 

*9 0Q UUOP 'JW 




duBqs 





reverse side 



Department of Lands and Forests, 
Fish and Wildlife Division, 



Ontario. 



fold 



Reasons for requesting returns 

Appreciation 

Please disregard this notice if 
your moose return has been 
forwarded to this office.